AUTHOR: Chezang Dendup, Ngawang Chhogyel, Ngawang
A field experiment was conducted at ARDC-Samtenling research station in 2017 to study the performance of rice using different rice planting methods. Four planting methods, namely line transplanting, random transplanting, drum seeding and broadcasting were applied on rice variety, Bhur Kambja-I that is currently considered as the best improved variety released for the low altitude rice agro-ecosystem. Rice cultivation in general and transplanted rice in particular is beset with issues of farm labor shortage and high cost of production in Bhutan. The results of the experiment showed that the planting methods did not have any significant effects on the grain yield and yield components. Grain yields for the different planting methods ranged between 3.10 ton/ha to 4.03 ton/ha. There was also no effect on yield components such as number of productive tillers and filled grains per panicle. However, the planting methods had significant effect on the crop maturity duration by about two weeks. Direct seeded rice matured early (113 days) while transplanting took 123 days. Further, direct seeding using either drum seeder or broadcasting had comparative advantage over transplanted rice in terms of labor requirement and cost of production. The cost advantage was found to be as high as 53% for drum seeding and 42% for broadcasting methods compared against line transplanting method. Based on the study, direct seeded rice could be promoted since it showed potential for promotion.
Agro-ecosystem; Crop performance; Grain yield; Planting methods
FULL TEXT: PDF Download
Akhgari H and Kaviani B. 2011. Assessment of direct seeded and transplanting methods of rice cultivars in the northern part of Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6 (31): 6492-6498
Akhgari I.H, Noorhosseini-Niyaki A and Sadeghi S.M. 2013. Effects of planting methods on yield and yield components of ratoon and main plant of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Rsht. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Science, 3 (3): 150-157.
Balasubramanian V, Hill J.E. 2002. Direct seeding of rice in Asia: emerging issues and strategic research needs for the 21st century. In: Pandey S, Mortimer M, Wade L, Tuong T. P, Lopez K, Hardy B. (Eds.), Direct Seeding: Research Strategies and Opportunities. Inter. Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, pp. 15–42.
Chhogyel N, Ghimiray M, Wangdue K & Bajgai Y. 2015a. Enhancing Bhutanese Rice in the Domestic Market through increased Production and Favorable Pricing Regime. Journal of Bhutan Studies. 32, 26-44.
Chhogyel N, Pradhan N, Ghimiray M and Bajgai Y. 2015b. Evaluation of short duration rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety as a strategy to cope with climate change. 2(2): 91-103.
Chhogyel N, Gyem L, and Dorji C. 2013. Performance evaluation of improved rice varieties at RDC Bajo. Journal of Renewable Natural Resources of Bhutan. 9 (2013): 33-39.
Chapman S.R and Carter L.P. 1976. Principles and practice of field crop production. W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 680.
De Datta, S.K. 1981. Principles and Practices of rice production. International Rice Research Institute Pub-lication, Los Banos, Philippines.
DoA (Department of Agriculture). 2016. Agriculture Statistics 2015. Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. DoA, Thimphu Bhutan, 28p.
DoA (Department of Agriculture). 2015. Agriculture Statistics 2015. Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. DoA, Thimphu Bhutan, 100p.
Farooq M, Siddique K, Rehman H, Aziz T, Dong-Jin Lee, Wahid A. 2010. Rice direct seeding: experiences, Challenges and opportunities. Soil and tillage research 111 (2011): 87-98. doi:10.1016/j.still.2010.10.008
Farooq M, Basra S.M. A, Wahid A. 2006a. Priming of field-sown rice seed enhances ermination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield. Plant Growth Regul. 49: 285–294.
Farooq M, Basra S.M.A, Tabassum R, Afzal, I. 2006b. Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Prod. Sci. 9: 446–456.
Global Rice Science Partnership. 2013. Rice Almanac, 4th edition. Los Banos, Philippines. International Rice Research Institute. 283p.
Gill J.S, Walia S.S and Gill R.S. Direct seeded rice: An alternative rice establishment technique in North-West India-A review. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2 (3): 375-386.
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 2012. Annual report 2011. Los Banos, Phlippines, International Research Institute. 39p.
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 2006. Rice Fact Sheet. Direct seeded rice: A low cost establishment technology. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines. www.knowledgebank.irri.org/regional Sites/Nepal/default.htm
Laary J.K, Dogbe W,.Boamah P, Oand Agawini J. 2012. Evaluation of planting methods for growth and yield of ―Digang‖ rice (oryza sativa l.) under upland condition of Bawku, upper east region, Ghana. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 7(10): 1990-6145
John I, Mathew G and Mathew J. 2002. Comparison between transplanting and direct seeding methods for crop establishment in rice. Journal of tropical agriculture. 40 (2002): 6566.
Kumar V and Ladha J.K. 2011. Direct seeding of rice: Recent developments and future research needs.Advances in agronomy, International rice research institute India office, Pusa New Delhi, 111: 297-413.
Mann R A, Ahmad S, Hassan G and Baloch, M.S. 2007. Weed management in direct seeded rice crop. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 13 (3-4): 219-226.
Manjunatha M. V, Reddy B.G and Joshi V.R. 2009. Performance of rice (Oryza sativa) under different menthod of establishment in Tungabhadra canal command, Karmataka. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science. 22(5): (1151-1152).
Naresh R.K, Mishra A.K and Singh S.P. 2013. Assessment of Direct Seeded and Transplanting Methods of Rice Cultivars in the Western Part of Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Business Management, 1(1):1-8.
PPD (policy and Planning Division). 2016. Bhutan RNR statistics. Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. Policy and Planning Division, Thimphu Bhutan
Rana Md. M, Mamun Md. AA, Zahan A, Ahmed M.N and Mridha Md. J. 2014. Effect of planting methods on the yield and yield attributes of short duration Aman rice. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 5: 251-255. dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.53033
Sanusan S, Polthanee A, Audebert A, Seripong S and Mouret J. 2010. Suppressing weeds in direct-seeded lowland rainfed rice: Effect of cutting dates and timing of fertilizer application. Crop Protection 29(2010): 927-935. Doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2010.04.004
Singh V.P, Singh G, Singh S.P, Kumar A, Singh Y, Johnson D.E and Mortimer A.M. 2008. Direct seeding and weed management in irrigated rie-wheaat production system. In: Comparative studies of direct seeding for irrigated rice. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. 30p
Younas M, Rehman M.A, Hussain A, Ali L and Waqar M.Q. 2016. Economic comparison of direct seeded and transplanted rice: Evidences from adaptive research area of Punjab Pakistan. Asian Journal of Agriculture Biology. 4(1): 1-7.