AUTHOR: Bimal K. Chetri
Physiology of plants is greatly influenced when exposed to various environmental conditions including induced factors such as protected systems, soil condition and nutrient application. This study aimed to evaluate the change in leaf greenness given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process, physiological condition and eventually their role in plant growth. Other objective was to develop organic management option for organic growers in protected system (S) like in Polyhouse (S1) and Shadenet (S2) focusing on use of organics on three different green leafy vegetable crops viz. Indian spinach (C1), Fenugreek (C2) and Amaranthus (C3) employing split-split plot design. The SPAD readings and chlorophyll content analysis were taken at 3 different growth stages (20, 30 and 40 days after sowing). Analyses were performed in triplicates (n= 3) using agricolae package in R statistical software. Two-way ANOVA with mean separation by Tukey’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) at α =0.05 was used to compare differences between systems (S1/2) organic treatments (NM1-5) and their interactions. Results showed SPAD values, chlorophyll content and chl.a./.b. ratio were significantly higher in S1 than in S2. Similarly, system-wise and treatment-wise total dry weight were significantly higher in S1 than in S2 at the level of p<0.001 for all 3 growth stages (GSs). Mean comparison between (S1/2:C1-3) and (S1/2: NM1-5) interaction was significant at the probability level of ככ p<0.01. Treatments (NM1−5) effect on mean SPAD value and total chl. content was insignificant. Tukey’s HSD method was used for pair-wise comparisons. LSD test for SPAD values and total chl. were significant over GSs and between interactions at p<0.001 level. Chl.a., chl.b. and total chl. content varied significantly between ((S1/2: NM1−5) and C1−3: S1/2) interaction at the level of p<0.01. Chl.a./.b. ratio was higher in S2 compared to S1. Chl.b. was significantly higher than chl.a. in both the systems (S1/2) and between systems it was higher in S2. This study suggests positive correlation between SPAD values, chlorophyll and total dry weight (DW) (p<0.0) for all three crops.
SPAD, Chlorophyll Content,Organics,Vegetables,Protected System
FULL TEXT: PDF Download
Abdelhamidg, M., Horiuchi, T., & Oba, S. (2003). Evaluation of the SPAD value in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves in relation to different fertilizer applications. Plant Production Science, 6(3), 185-189.
Acatrinei, L. (2010). Photosynthesis rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance of vegetable species in protected organic crops. Lucrări Ştiinţifice , Seria Agronomie, Iasi, 53, 32-35.
Agegnehu, G., Bass, A. M., Nelson, P. N., & Bird, M. I. (2016). Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar – compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil. Science of the Total Environment, 543, 295-306.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris.Plant physiology, 24(1), 1.
Bhatt, R. K. (1999). Physiological changes in Sesbania species to reducing light intensities. Journal of agronomy and crop science, 182(1), 43-47.
Bidari, B. I., Math, K. K., & Ninganur, B. T. (2008). Physico-chemical properties and nutrient status of soil profiles producing varying quality chillies in Dharwad, Karnataka. Asian Journal of Soil Science, 3(2), 336-342.
Boardman, N. K. t. (1977). Comparative photosynthesis of sun and shade plants. Annual review of plant physiology, 28(1), 355-377.
Costa, R. C., Calvete, E. O., Schons, J., & Reginatto, F. H. (2010). Chlorophyll content in strawberry leaves produced under shading screens in greenhouse. Paper presented at the XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 926.
Elad, Y., Chet, I., & Katan, J. (1980). Trichoderma harzianum: A biocontrol agent effective against [soilborne plant pathogens] Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology (USA), 70(2), 119–121.
George, B., Kumar, R. V., & Chakraborty, S. (2014). Molecular characterization of Chilli leaf curl virus and satellite molecules associated with leaf curl disease of Amaranthus spp. Virus genes, 48(2), 397-401.
Hauptli, H., & Jain, S. (1977). Amaranth and meadowfoam: Two new crops? California Agriculture, 31(9), 6-7.
Hernández, A., Castillo, H., Ojeda, D., Arras, A., López, J., & Sánchez, E. (2010). Effect of vermicompost and compost on lettuce production. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 70(4), 583-589.
Ilić, Z. S., Milenković, L., Šunić, L., & Fallik, E. (2015). Effect of coloured shade nets on plant leaf parameters and tomato fruit quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(13), 2660-2667.
Islam, M. A., Ferdous, G., Akter, A., Hossain, M. M., & Nandwani, D. (2017). Effect of organic, inorganic fertilizers and plant spacing on the growth and yield of cabbage. Agriculture, 7(4).
Jones, B., & Nachtsheim, C. J. ((2009)). Split-plot designs: What, why, and how. Journal of quality technology, 41(4), 340–361.
Khan, S. N., Naz, S., Farooq, S., & Tahira, J. J. (2014). Fenugreek Agronomy from the Perspective of Production and Postharvest Constraints. American Journal of Social Issues & Humanities (Fenugreek Special Issue Mar/April), 109-119.
Kittas, C., Katsoulas, N., Bartzanas, T., & Bakker, S. (2013). Good agricultural practices for green house vegetable crops. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UnitedNations.
Kosma, C., Triantafyllidis, V., Papasavvas, A., Salahas, G., & Patakas, A. (2013). Yield and nutritional quality of green house lettuce as affected by shading and cultivation season. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25(12).
Kumar, S. R., & Arumugam, T. (2010). Performance of vegetables under naturally ventilated polyhouse condition. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 44(4), 770-776.
Lazcano, C., & Domınguez, J. (2011). The use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture: impact on plant growth and soil fertility. Soil nutrients, 10, 1-23.
Ledolter, J. ( 2010). Split-plot designs: discussionandexamples. International JournalofQuality Engineering and Technology, 1(4), 441–457.
Lim, S. L., Wu, T. Y., Lim, P. N., & Shak, K. P. Y. (2015). The use of vermi-compost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and economics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(6), 1143–1156.
Ling, Q., Huang, W., & Jarvis, P. (2011). Photosynthesis research. Use of a spad-502 meter to measure leaf chlorophyll concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana, 107(2), 209–214.
Liu, Y.-J., Tong, Y.-P., Zhu, Y.-G., Ding, H., & Smith, F. A. (2006). Leaf chlorophyll readings as an indicator for spinach yield and nutritional quality with different nitrogen fertilizer applications. Journal of plant nutrition, 29(7), 1207-1217.
Mendiburu, F. (2017). Package “agricolae”: Statistical procedures for agricultural research. R Found. Stat. Comput., Vienna. Minolta, C. (1989). Manual for chlorophyll meter spad-502. Osaka: Minolta Radiometric Instruments Divisions.
Mishra, G. P., Singh, N., Kumar, H., & Singh, S. B. (2010). Protected cultivation for food and nutritional security at Ladakh. Defence Science Journal, 60(2).
Murchie, E. H., & Horton, P. (1997). Acclimation of photosynthesis to irradiance and spectral quality in British plant species: chlorophyll content, photosynthetic capacity and habitat preference. Plant, Cell & Environment, 20(4), 438-448.
Netto, A. T., Campostrini, E., de Oliveira, J. G., & Bressan-Smith, R. E. (2005). Photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen, chlorophyll a fluorescence and SPAD-502 readings in coffee leaves. Scientia Horticulturae, 104(2), 199-209.
Nordey, T., Basset-Mens, C., De Bon, H., Martin, T., Déletré, E., Simon, S. (2017). Protected cultivation of vegetable crops in sub-Saharan Africa: Limits and prospects for smallholders. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 37(6), 53.
Nyi, N., Sridokchan, W., Chai-arree, W., & Srinives, P. (2012). Non-destructive measurement of photosynthetic pigments and nitrogen status in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) by chlorophyll meter. Philipp. Agric. Sci, 95, 83-89.
Padmanabha, K., Umesh, M. R., & Krishnappa, K. S. (2008). Effect of different organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on nutrient content and nutrient uptake in palak (Beta vulgarisvar bengalensis Hort.). Asian Journal of Horticulture, 3(2), 256-258.
Parvej, M., Khan, M., & Awal, M. (2010). Phenological development and production potentials of tomato under polyhouse climate. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(1).
R Core Team. (2018). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Rashid, S. Z. (2011). Composting and use of compost for organic agriculture in Bangladesh. In Proceedings of the 4th international conference for the development of integrated pest management in Asia and Africa.
Riccardi, M., Mele, G., Pulvento, C., Lavini, A., d’Andria, R., & Jacobsen, S. E. (2014). Nondestructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components. Photosynthesis research, 120(3), 263-272.
Saadatian, M., Alaghemand, S., Ayyubi, H., Hasanpour, E., Olfati, J., Hamidoghli, Y. (2017). Effects of organic fertilizers on growth and biochemical characteristics of fenugreek. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 109(2), 197–203.
Sabir, N., & Singh, B. (2013). Protected cultivation of vegetables in global arena: A review. Indian Journal o f Agricultural Sciences, 83(2), 123–135.
Saikia, P., Bhattacharya, S. S., & Baruah, K. (2015). Organic substitution in fertilizer schedule: Impacts on soil health, photosynthetic efficiency, yield and assimilation in wheat grown in alluvial soil Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 203, 102–109.
Singh, B., & Sirohi, N. (2004). Protected cultivation of vegetables in India: problems and future prospects 710,(pp.339–342). Paper presented at the International Symposium on Greenhouses, Environmental Controls and In-house Mechanization for Crop Production in the Tropics, Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.
Steele, M. R., Gitelson, A. A., & Rundquist, D. C. (2008). A comparison of two techniques for non-destructive measurement of chlorophyll content in grape vine leaves. Agronomy Journal, 100(3), 779–782.
Sudhakar, P., Latha, P., & Reddy, P. V. (2016). Phenotyping crop plants for physiological and biochemical traits: Academic Press.
Uchino, H., Watanabe, T., Ramu, K., Sahrawat, K., Marimuthu, S., Wani, S. (2013). Calibrating chlorophyll meter (spad-502) reading by specific leaf area for estimating leaf nitrogen concentration in sweet sorghum. Journal of plant nutrition, 36(10), 1640–1646.
Vimala, P., Illias, M., & Salbiah, H. (2006). Effects of rates of organic fertiliser on growth, yield and nutrient content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata) grown under shelter. Journal of Tropical Agriculture & Food Science, 34(1), 17.
Yang, H., Yang, J., Lv, Y., & He, J. (2014). Spad values and nitrogen nutrition index for the evaluation of rice nitrogen status. Plant Production Science, 17(1), 81-92.
Yedidia, I., Srivastva, A. K., Kapulnik, Y., & Chet, I. (2001). Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on micro element concentrations and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant and soil, 235(2).
Žnidarčič, D., Ban, D., & Šircelj, H. (2011). Carotenoid and chlorophyll composition of commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Mediterranean countries. Food chemistry, 129(3), 1164-1168.