Chinta Mani Dhimal & Ratu Kinley
Food grains infestation by insect pests in stores is a severe challenge in food production around the globe, especially in wet and humid regions. In Bhutan, mung bean is commonly grown for consumption as a superior source of protein. However, severe cowpea weevil infestation is observed while in storage condition. Controlling with synthetic pesticides is associated with health risks due to toxic residues which intervene in safe and healthy protection methods. Protecting the grains in-store through organic approach is imperative for consumption and seed purposes. Some botanical plant extracts are known for their protective properties which need location-specific studies based on availability and suitability. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of eight treatments (Acorus calamus rhizome powder, mustard oil, garlic cloves, turmeric rhizome powder, wood ash, Vitex negundo leaf powder, super grain bag including untreated control) against cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) in mungbean under storage condition. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The result revealed that the lowest mean number of grains perforated and percent grain perforated were recorded in grains treated with Acorus calamus rhizome powder (0.46 & 0.20 %) followed by mustard oil (1.05 & 0.47 %) and grains stored in super grain bag (5.74 & 2.49%), which were significantly lower (P<0.001) as compared to other treatments. The lowest number of adult cowpea weevils was also recorded in grains treated with Acorus calamus and mustard oil followed by grains stored in super grain bag. Germination percentage was found highest in wood ash followed by mustard oil, Acorus calamus and garlic-treated grains while the lowest was in super grain bag. Therefore, Acorus calamus rhizome powder and mustard oil were found to be effective in managing cowpea weevil without affecting seed germination and vigour.
Keywords: Cowpea weevil; Mung bean; Management; Treatment